Developing Thinking Reading Classrooms: Insight from Pre-Service EFL Teachers’ Lesson Plans and Classroom Instructions

Dwi Puji Hastuti, Diah Kristina, Endang Setyaningsih


Numerous studies have investigated the integration of critical thinking in EFL classrooms and textbooks. Still, relatively few have investigated the integration of critical thinking into reading lesson plans and classroom instructions. The current study adopted a qualitative case study approach to provide insight into how pre-service EFL teachers infused critical thinking skills into online reading classrooms. The study also gives information on pre-service EFL teachers' challenges in critical thinking integration into reading classrooms. Eight pre-service EFL teachers who completed all three phases of the faculty-mandated teaching practicum program participated in the study. Document analysis, virtual classroom observations, and semi-structured interviews were used as data collection techniques to fulfill the research objectives. As the study framework, Bloom's revised taxonomy was applied to lesson plan data to examine how critical thinking components are incorporated. Virtual classroom observations illuminated the incorporation of critical thinking into reading lessons. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted to gather more information regarding the challenges of integrating critical thinking skills. The present study reveals that pre-service EFL teachers integrated critical thinking aspects into reading online classes with a greater emphasis on lower-order cognitive than higher-order cognitive processes. It implies that pre-service EFL teachers had insufficient preparation for teaching practicum programs. Due to the significance of critical thinking skills for EFL students, this study recommends that teacher training institutes strengthen the critical thinking abilities of pre-service EFL teachers so that they are more equipped to teach and promote critical thinking in EFL classrooms.

Keywords: classroom instructions, critical thinking, lesson plans, pre-service teachers


Full Text:



Abrami, P. C., Bernard, R. M., Borokhovski, E., Wade, A., Surkes, M. A., Tamim, R., & Zhang, D. (2008). Instructional interventions affecting critical thinking skills and dispositions: A stage 1 Meta-Analysis. Review of Educational Research, 78(4), 1102–1134.

Agustina, N., Mayuni, I., Iskandar, I., & Ratmaningsih, N. M. (2022). Mobile learning application: Infusing critical thinking in the EFL classroom. Studies in English Language and Education, 9(2), 724–743.

Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., Airasian, P. W., Cruikshank, K. A., Mayer, R. E., Pintrich, P. R., Raths, J., & Wittrock, M. C. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: a revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

Bağ, H. K., & Gürsoy, E. (2021). The Effect of Critical Thinking Embedded English Course Design to The Improvement of Critical Thinking Skills of Secondary School Learners✰. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 41(April).

Case, R. (2005). Moving critical thinking to the main stage. Education Canada, 45(2), 45–49.

Cottrel, S. (2005). Critical thinking skills: Developing effective analysis and argument. Palgrave Macmillan.

El Soufi, N., & See, B. H. (2019). Does explicit teaching of critical thinking improve critical thinking skills of English language learners in higher education? A critical review of causal evidence. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 60(August 2018), 140–162.

Elder, L., & Paul, R. W. (2006). Critical thinking: Learn the tools the best thinkers use. Concise edition. Prentice Hall.

Ennis, R. H. (1996). Critical Thinking Dispositions: Their Nature and Assessability. Informal Logic, 18(2), 165–182.

Facione, P. A. (1990). Critical thinking: A statement of expert consensus for purposes of educational assessment and instruction. Research findings and recommendations. American Philosophical Association.

Floyd, C. B. (2011). Critical thinking in a second language. Higher Education Research and Development, 30(3), 289–302.

Ghabanchi, Z., & Behrooznia, S. (2014). The Impact of Brainstorming on Reading Comprehension and Critical Thinking Ability of EFL Learners. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 513–521.

Ghanizadeh, A., Al-Hoorie, A. H., & Jahedizadeh, S. (2020). Higher order thinking skills in the language classroom: A concise guide. In Second Language Learning and Teaching.

Gustine, G. G. (2018). a Survey on Critical Literacy As a Pedagogical Approach. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 7(3), 531–537.

Haryati, S., & Hidayati, D. N. (2017). Hoax News: Promoting the Students’ Critical Thinking in Critical Reading Class. Register Journal, 10(2), 122–139.

Huang, C. T., & Yang, S. C. (2015). Effects of online reciprocal teaching on reading strategies, comprehension, self-efficacy, and motivation. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 52(3), 381–407.

Jodoi, K., Takenaka, N., Uchida, S., Nakagawa, S., & Inoue, N. (2021). Developing an active-learning app to improve critical thinking: item selection and gamification effects. Heliyon, 7(11), e08256.

Johnson, R. B., & Christensen, L. (2017). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches — sixth edition. In SAGE Publications, Inc.

Johnson, K. E. (2006). The sociocultural turn and its challenges for second language teacher education. TESOL Quarterly, 40(1), 235–257.

Koenig, J. A. (2011). Assesing 21st Century Skills Summary of Workshop. The National Academic Press.

Lamb, M. (2004). “It depends on the students themselves”: Independent language learning at an Indonesian state school. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 17(3), 229–245.

Li, L. (2016). Integrating thinking skills in foreign language learning: What can we learn from teachers’ perspectives? Thinking Skills and Creativity, 22, 273–288.

Lin, Y. (2018). Infusing Critical Thinking into EFL Classes. In Developing Critical Thinking in EFL Classes.

Loo, D. B. (2020). Integrating Critical Thinking in Online Language Tasks: Considerations for an Academic Writing Class. International Journal of TESOL Studies, 2, 52–61.

Manalo, E., & Sheppard, C. (2016). How might language affect critical thinking performance? Thinking Skills and Creativity, 21, 41–49.

Miles, M. B., Hubberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: A method sourcebook (3rd ed.). SAGE.

Nesari, A. J., & Heidari, M. (2014). The Important Role of Lesson Plan on Educational Achievement of Iranian EFL Teachers’ Attitudes. International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research, 2(5), 27–34.

Nold, H. (2017). Using Critical Thinking Teaching Methods to Increase Student Success: An Action Research Project. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 29(1), 17–32.

Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2009). Critical thinking: Ethical reasoning and fair minded thinking, part I. Journal of Developmental Education, 33(1), 38–39.

Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2013). The Standards for Thinking. In Tools for Taking Charge of Your Porfessional and Personal Life.

Rahman, M. M. ur. (2020). Challenges and solutions of teaching english as a foreign language online during a global pandemic like covid-19: saudi efl teachers’ perspectives. Journal of Southwest Jiaotong University, 55(6).

Seker, H., & Kömür, Ş. (2008). The relationship between critical thinking skills and in-class questioning behaviours of English language teaching students. European Journal of Teacher Education, 31(4), 389–402.

Setyaningsih, E. (2019). Bringing critical literacy into tertiary EFL reading class. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 9(2), 297–307.

Solihati, N., & Hikmat, A. (2018). Critical Thinking Tasks Manifested in Indonesian Language Textbooks for Senior Secondary Students. SAGE Open, 8(3).

Susanty, L., Hartati, Z., Sholihin, R., Syahid, A., & Liriwati, F. Y. (2021). Why English teaching truth on digital trends as an effort for effective learning and evaluation: opportunities and challenges: analysis of teaching English. Linguistics and Culture Review, 5(S1), 303–316.

Tathahira, T. (2020). Promoting students’ critical thinking through online learning in higher education: Challenges and Strategies. Englisia: Journal of Language, Education, and Humanities, 8(1), 79.

Tran, T. N. Y. (2017). The Effect of Brainstorming on EFL Reading Comprehension. VNU Journal of Foreign Studies, 33(6), 142–149.

Turner, J. C. (1995). The influence of classroom contexts on young children’s motivation for literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 30(3), 410–441.

Wallace, C. (2003). Critical reading in language education. In Critical Reading in Language Education.

Wilson, K. (2016). Critical reading, critical thinking: Delicate scaffolding in English for Academic Purposes (EAP). Thinking Skills and Creativity, 22, 256–265.

Wineburg, S. (1998). Reading Abraham Lincoln: An expert/expert study in the interpretation of historical texts. Cognitive Science, 22(3), 319–346.

Wu, W. C. V., Marek, M., & Chen, N. S. (2013). Assessing cultural awareness and linguistic competency of EFL learners in a CMC-based active learning context. System, 41(3), 515–528.

Yang, Y. T. C., & Gamble, J. (2013). Effective and practical critical thinking-enhanced EFL instruction. ELT Journal, 67(4), 398–412.

Yanning, D. (2017). Teaching and Assessing Critical Thinking in Second Language Writing: An Infusion Approach. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics, 40(4), 431–451.

Zhang, H., Yuan, R., & He, X. (2020). Investigating university efl teachers’ perceptions of critical thinking and its teaching: voices from china. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 29(5), 483–493.

Zhao, C., Pandian, A., & Mehar Singh, M. K. (2016). Instructional strategies for developing critical thinking in efl classrooms. English Language Teaching, 9(10), 14.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Dwi Puji Hastuti, Diah Kristina, Endang Setyaningsih

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

In the aim of improving the quality of the Journal since 19th October 2016 this journal officially had made cooperation with ELITE Association Indonesia (The association of Teachers of English Linguistics, Literature & Education). See The MoU Manuscript.