Genre and Attitude to Support Character Development in Children Stories

Riyadi Santosa, Djatmika Djatmika, Dyah Ayu Nila Khrisna


This paper examines how character development is analyzed through attitude, genre’s stages, and phases in children's stories. Relying on ten children's stories purposively selected from two children's storybooks, the results show that all ten stories are written as narratives with a number of absences of attitude, stages, and phases of the narrative genre. most stories succeed to fulfill the obligatory stages of narrative: orientation, complication, evaluation, and resolution, even others add the optional stage, coda. However, a number of stories fail to satisfy the presence of evaluation. in addition, all stories do not exploit attitude in every phase of every stage of the narrative. Even, a number of stories miss exploiting Attitude in a number of prominent phases such as introducing the character in orientation, development, and peak of the conflict in complication, and plan and act in resolution. Besides, all ten stories do not explore all types of attitude and their sub-classifications, in which each type will contribute to the holistic description of the character. Thus, although all stories can be considered to develop character along the obligatory stages of the narrative genre, they still fail to build a more complex character development through positive-negative-positive evaluation through stages and phases of the stories.

Keywords: character development; genre; stages; phases; attitude

Full Text:



Almerico, G.M. (2014). Building character through literacy with children’s literature. Research in Higher Education Journal, 24, 1-13.

Cartledge, G. & Kiarie, M.W. (2001). Learning social skills through literature for children and adolescents. Teaching Exceptional Children. 34 (2) 40-47.

Djatmika, D. (2012). Kualitas olah bahasa anak usia sekolah dasar dalam kegiatan bercerita: Sebuah proses pemerolehan bahasa anak. Metalingua Jurnal Penelitian Bahasa.10 (2).

Djatmika, D., Primasita, F. A. & Priyanto, A. D. (2011). Strategi meningkatkan kualitas olah bahasa untuk cerita pendek tulisan siswa sekolah dasar dengan pendekatan genre-based. Jurnal Ilmu Bahasa dan Sastra Lingua. 6 (2).

Erdmann, E. (2009). Nationality international: Detective fiction in the late twentieth century. Translated by Fiona Fincannon. First published in: Murti, et. al., Investigating identities: Questions of identity in contemporary international crime fiction. Edited by Marieke Krajenbrink. Rodopi.11-26. handle/123456789/3567.

Feldman, M.P. (2014). The character of innovative places: entrepreneurial strategy, economic development, and prosperity. Small Business Economics, 43, 9–20.

Fitriati, S. W., Solihah, Y. A., & Tusino. (2018). Expressions of attitudes in students’ narrative writing: An appraisal analysis. Lingua Cultura, 12(4), 333-338.

Hasan, R. (2014). Towards a paradigmatic description of context: systems, metafunctions, and semantics. Functional Linguist, 1 (9).

Inderawati, R. (2012). The development of literary appreciation instrument in building students’ character. Sino-US English Teaching, 9 (2), 937-945.

Leming, J. S. (2010). Tell me a story: An evaluation pf a literature-based character education programme. Journal of Moral Education, 29, 413-427.

Martin, J. R. (1992) English text: System and structure. John Benjamin.

Martin, J. R. & White, P. (2005). The language of evaluation: Appraisal in English. Palgrave Macmillan

Martin, J. R. & Rose, D. (2007). Working with discourse: Meaning beyond the clause. Continuum.

Martin, J. R. (2014). Evolving systemic functional linguistics: Beyond the clause. Functional Linguist, 1, 3.

Martin, J. R. (2017). The discourse semantics of attitudinal relations: Continuing the study of lexis. Russian Journal of Linguistics, 21(1), 22-47.

Matthiessen, C. M. I. M. (2015a). Register in the round: registerial cartography. Functional Linguist, 2, 9.

Matthiessen, C. M. I. M. (2015b). Modelling context and register: the long-term project of registerial cartography. Letras, Santa Maria. 25 (50). 15-90.

Matthiessen, C. M. I. M. & Khasyaf, A. K. (2014). The construal of space in different register: An exploratory study. Language and Science. 45. 1-27.

O'Sullivan, Sheryl, (2004). Books to live by: Using children's literature for character education. The Reading Teacher. 57 (7), 640-648.

Rose, David (2007). Reading genre: A new wave of analysis. Linguistics and the Human Sciences, 2 (1), 1-30.

Rose, David (2010). Genre in the Sydney school. In the Routledge Handbook of Discourse Analysis, 1-16. James Paul Gee and Mike Handford (eds. Routledge.

Santosa, R. (2003). Semiotika sosial: Pandangan terhadap bahasa. Pustaka Eureka & Jawa Pos Press.

Santosa, R., Djatmika, D. & Akhmerti, F. (2007). sastra anak sebagai wahana pengenalan dan pengasuhan ideologi: Sebuah kajian wacana. Laporan Penelitian Fundamental Tahun ke-2.

Santosa, R. (2017). Metode penelitian kualitatif kebahasaan. UNS Press.

Segal, E. (2010). Closure in detective fiction. Poetics Today. 31 (2). 153-215.

Shiro, M. (2003). Genre and evaluation in narrative development. Journal of Child Language, 30 (1), 165-195.

Spradley, J. P. (2006). Metode etnografi (M. Z. Elizabeth, Trans.). Tiara Wacana.

Tan, E. S. (2011). Emotion and the structure of narrative film: Film as emotion machine. Routledge.

Tupala, M. (2019). Applying quantitative appraisal analysis to the study of institutional discourse: the case of EU migration document. Functional Linguistics, 6(2), 1-17.

Tyra, C. (2011). Bringing books to life: Teaching character education through children’s literature. Rising Tide, 5, 1-16.

Widyahening, E. T. & Wardhani, N. E. (2016). Literary work and character education. International Journal of Language and Literature. 4 (1). 176-180.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Riyadi Santosa, Djatmika, Dyah Ayu Nila Khrisna

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

In the aim of improving the quality of the Journal since 19th October 2016 this journal officially had made cooperation with ELITE Association Indonesia (The association of Teachers of English Linguistics, Literature & Education). See The MoU Manuscript.