The Global local planes of English needs in Indonesian contexts

Christine Manara



This article reports one part of a larger study, exploring the global and local English needs in nine secondary level schools in several Indonesian contexts (i.e. Sumatera, Sulawesi, and East Nusa Tenggara). The study investigates: 1) teachers and students perceived understanding of the existence of English in their local contexts; 2) opinions of their current local and global needs of English in today’s globalized era; and 3) their opinion on the teaching and learning of English. Data were collected from questionnaires and interviews. The results show that students in different contexts have slightly different views and perceptions of English use and how it needs to be learned and taught for their current and future needs of English. Although slightly different in their perceptions of needs, there seems to be a coordinated understanding of English needs between the students and teachers. The findings also indicate that there is a growing awareness of the need to teach the communicative aspects of English in relation to students’ activities online. Therefore, the teaching of English needs to be conducted by providing more English exposure, integrating blended learning, adopting English for Specific Purposes approach, and teaching pragmatics knowledge and intercultural skills.

Full Text:



Buchori, M. (2001). Notes on education in Indonesia. Jakarta: The Jakarta Post.

Canagarajah, A.S. (2005). Reclaiming the local in language policy and practice. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Canagarajah, A.S. (2006). TESOL at forty: What are the issues?, TESOL Quarterly, 40(1), 9-34.

Crystal, D. (2003). English as a Global Language (2nd edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Feak, C.B. (2013). ESP and speaking. In Paltridge, B & Starfield, S. (Eds.). The handbook of English for Specific Purposes (pp. 137-154). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Hansen-Thomas. H., Richins, L.G., Kakkar, K. and Okeyo, C. (2016). I do not feel I am properly trained to help them! Rural teachers’ perceptions of challenges and needs with English-language learners, Professional Development in Education, 42(2), 308-324.

Hesse-Bibber, S.N. (2010). Mixed methods research: Merging theory with practice. New York: The Guilford Press.

Lawson, S. (2018). English Teaching Assistants in Indonesia: An examination of their intercultural experiences and co-teaching partnerships. An unpublished research report for the Ministry of Research and Technology, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Manara, C. (2014). Intercultural Dialogue on English Language Teaching: Multilingual teacher educator’s narrative of professional learning. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Manara, C. (2016). “No need-lah, Uncle”: Teacher’s perspective on English(es) communication and pedagogy, International Journal of Culture and History, 2(1), 9-14.

McKay, S.L. (2002). Teaching English as an International Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Schneider, E.W. (2011). English around the world: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pennycook, A. (2010). English and globalization, in Routledge Companion to English language studies (pp. 155-170). London: Routledge.

Phillipson, R. (1990). Linguistics Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019

License URL:

In the aim of improving the quality of the Journal since 19th October 2016 this journal officially had made cooperation with ELITE Association Indonesia (The association of Teachers of English Linguistics, Literature & Education). See The MoU Manuscript.