The Analysis of Grammatical and Textual Equivalence Used in The Translation of Paolini‘s Novel of “Inheritance” into Indonesian

Badi’atul Azmina


This study examines kinds of grammatical and textual equivalence which are used by Poppy D. Chusfani in translating English into Indonesia language of Christopher Paolini‘s Novel of “Inheritance” as well as the most dominant equivalence used by Poppy D. Chusfani in translating English into Indonesia language of Christopher Paolini‘s Novel of “Inheritance”. This is descriptive qualitative research and the method of collecting data of this study are documentation and library research. The data in the novel which have been collected are classified into two kinds of equivalence; grammatical equivalence (number, gender, person, tense/aspect and voice) and textual equivalence (reference, substitution, ellipsis, conjunction and lexical cohesion). After analyzing and classifying the data, researcher discovered that there are 25 data of number, 27 data of gender, 38 data of person, 12 data of tense/aspect and 12 data of voice. Furthermore, researcher discovered that there are 33 data of reference, 9 data of substitution and ellipsis, 35 data of conjunction and 17 data of lexical cohesion.Those data presented are representative from all of the data in the novel, because the writer takes the data by its part among the translated sentences contained grammatical and textual (cohesion) equivalence. To sum up, the result shows that Poppy D. Chusfani uses all kinds of grammatical and textual (cohesion) equivalence, after all, grammatical equivalence of person is the most dominant data (38) used by Poppy D. Chusfani in translating English into Indonesia language of Christopher Paolini‘s Novel of “Inheritance”  


Concept of Equivalence ; Grammatical Equivalence ; Textual Equivalence ; Inheritance Novel

Full Text:



Baker, M. (1992) In Other Words: A Coursebook on Translation. New York: Routledge.

Bell, R.T. (1991). Translation and Translating: Theory and Practice. England: Longman.

Bogdan, R. & S. Taylor. (1972). Introduction to Research Methods. New York: Wiley.

Budianto, L. & Fardhani, A.E. (2010) .A Practical Guide for Translation Skill. Malang: UIN-Maliki Press.

Catford, J. C. (1965) .A Linguistic Theory of Translation, London: Oxford University Press.

Chusfani, P.D. (2013). Menerjemahkan Novel Populer.Workshop Indonesian Readers Festival. Goodreads Indonesia.

DiYanni, R.(2004). Literatures: Approaches to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.

Donahue, D. (2011). 'Inheritance' by Christopher Paolini debuts at No. 1.USA Today. Retrieved June 7, 2015 from

Encyclopedia of World Biography. (2003). Christopher Paolini Biography.Retrieved June 7, 2015 from

English W. (2013). Present perfect tenses table. Retrieved August 05, 2015 from

Fiction D.B. (2005). Award-Winning Books by Christopher Paolini. Retrieved June 7, 2015 from

Finlay, N. F.. (1971). TeachYourself Books: Translating. Edinburg. The English Universities Press.

Guinness World Records. (2011). Youngest author of a bestselling book series.RetrievedJune 7, 2015 from

Hadi, S. (1981). Metodologi Research.Yogyakarta: FakultasEkonomi UGM.

Hanifah, N. (2013). Penulis Hebat di Indonesia. Retrieved August 20, 2015 from

Halliday, M. A. K. & Hasan, R (1976). Cohesion in Translation. London: Longman Group Ltd.

Halverston, S. (1977). The Concept of Equivalence in Translation Studies: Much Ado About Something, in TARGET 9:2, TARGET, International Journal of Translation Studies,Vol 9:2, 1997, John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Hartono, J. (2015). Jenis-Jenis Kata Ganti Orang dan Kata Sapaan. Retrieved August 05, 2015 from

Holman, C. H & Harmon, W, eds. (2011). .A Handbook to Literature.New York: MacMillan.

Hornby, A.S. (1987) .Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. New York: Oxford University Press.

¬¬Kecdraw. (2013). Summary of Inheritance Cycle. Retrieved June 7, 2015 from

Kirk, J. & Marc L. M. (1986). Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research. USA: SAGE Publications Inc.

Lina, M. F (2013). An Analysis of Technical Devices in Translation Procedures Applied by Listiana Srisanti in Translating A J.K. Rowling’s Novel. Salatiga: IAIN Salatiga.

Leonardi, V. (2000). Equivalence in Translation: Between Myth and Reality. TranslationTheory.Retrieved November 10, 2014 from

Macauley, M. (2011). Christopher Paolini Awarded Guinness World Record: Our Coverage of the Event Retrieved June 7, 2015 from

Merriam Webster’s Third New International Dictionary: Unabridged. (1981). USA: Encyclopedia of Britanica Inc.

Miles, M.B & Huberman A.M, (1994). An Expanded Sourcebook Qualitative Data Analysis: Second Edition. USA: SAGE Publications.

Newmark, P. (1993). Paragraphs On Translation Topics in Translation; 1. England: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Nida, E.A. & Taber, C. R. (1982) .The Theory and Practice of Translation. Nedherlands: E.J. Brill.

Paolini, C. (2011). Inheritance (epub file). USA: Random House Inc.

________________. (2012). Retrieved June 7, 2015 from

________________. (2013). Inheritance. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

________________. (2014). Christopher Paolini Biography.Retrieved June 7, 2015 from

________________. (2015). Christopher: My Experience with Homeschooling.Retrieved June 7, 2015 from

Quirk et al. (1972).A Grammar of Contemporary English. London: Longman Group Ltd.

Ramunė, K. (2002). Contrastive Analysis of the Grammatical Category NUMBER in Nouns in the English and Lithuanian Languages in STUDIES ABOUT LANGUAGES, No. 2 May 2002. Lithuania.

Risdianto, F. (2014). A handbook of English Literature. Yogyakarta: Javakarsa Media.

Ruhansah, V. I (2013). An Analysis of Students’ Ability in Translating Grammatical Equivalence (A Descriptive Study of the Sixth Semester English Department Students of State Institute for Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga in the Academic Year of 2012/2013). Salatiga: IAIN Salatiga.

Ruslan, R. (2004). MetodePenelitian Public Relation danKomunikasi. Jakarta: Raja GravindoPersada.

Schmoop. (2003). Eragon Themes.Retrieved 21.29, June 7, 2015.

Sinclair, J. ed. (1995) Collins Cobuild English Grammar. Glasgow: Harper Collins Manufacturing.

Sumanto.(1995). Metodology Sosial dan Pendidikan.Yogyakarta: Andi Offset.

Trost, D. (2012) . Business Writing Tip #23 – Be careful with your choice of pronouns. Retrieved August 05, 2015 from

Widiyantari, Y. (2010) The Strategy to Translate Metaphor. REGISTER.Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 57-59.

Writers Services. 2010. Success story: Christopher Paolini. Retrieved June 7, 2015 from

Yinhua, X. (2011). Equivalence in Translation: Features and Necessity in International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol 1 No. 10; August 2011. China.

_________ (2012). Christopher Paolini: Biography and Interview. RetrievedJune 7, 2015 from

_____________. (2007).Series Will Be Expanded to Include A Fourth Full-Length Novel.Retrieved June 7, 2015 from



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016

License URL:

In the aim of improving the quality of the Journal since 19th October 2016 this journal officially had made cooperation with ELITE Association Indonesia (The association of Teachers of English Linguistics, Literature & Education). See The MoU Manuscript.