Investigating Lexical Diversity of Children Narratives: A Case Study of L1 Speaking

Famala Eka Sanhadi Rahayu, Aries Utomo, Ririn Setyowati

Abstract


Lexical diversity is one of the language tools to measure varied words or vocabulary produced by learners in a text both spoken and written. This research aims to investigate the lexical diversity of children narratives produced by children orally. The research design of this research was a case study supported by quantitative data. Meanwhile, the subjects of this research are seven children around 6-9 years old. In collecting data, the researchers employed narrative storytelling based on a picture which is drawn by the subjects. In analyzing data, TTR (Type-Token -Ratio) was used to measure the lexical diversity gained from the subject while the theory was used to explain the phenomena. Based on the findings, it is found that (1) older children have higher lexical diversity than the younger ones, (2) younger children produced higher lexical frequency (word tokens) than the older ones (3) individual variations caused an anomaly of the result in which older children were expected to have higher lexical frequency but the result showed the reverse.

 Keywords: Lexical Diversity, Children, Oral Narratives, Case Study.

 


References


Akbari, N. (2017). Lexical diversity and the use of academic and lower frequency words in the academic writing of EFL students. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 40(1), 3–18. https://doi.org/10.1075/aral.40.1.02akb

Arya, D. J., Hiebert, E. H., & Pearson, P. D. (2011). The effects of syntactic and lexical complexity on the comprehension of elementary science texts. 4(1), 107–125.

Boonkit, K. (2010). Enhancing the development of speaking skills for non-native speakers of English. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.191

Carlisle, J. F., & Fleming, J. (2003). Lexical Processing of Morphologically Complex Words in the Elementary Years. Scientific Studies of Reading. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532799xssr0703_3

de Bot, K. (2004). The multilingual lexicon: Modelling selection and control. International Journal of Multilingualism. https://doi.org/10.1080/14790710408668176

Foster, P., & Tavakoli, P. (2009). Native speakers and task performance: Comparing effects on complexity, fluency, and lexical diversity. Language Learning, 59(4), 866–896. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2009.00528.x

Gass, S. M., & Selinker, L. (2008). The role of the native language: an historical overview. In Second language acquisition: an introductory course.

González, M. C. (2017). The Contribution of Lexical Diversity to College-Level Writing. TESOL Journal, 8(4), 899–919. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesj.342

Gregori-Signes, C., & Clavel-Arroitia, B. (2015). Analysing Lexical Density and Lexical Diversity in University Students’ Written Discourse. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.07.477

Ingram, D. (1989). First Language Acquisition: Method, Description, and Explanation. 1–572. https://doi.org/10.1177/002383099003300205

Johansson, V. (2009). Lexical diversity and lexical density in speech and writing: a developmental perspective. Working Papers in Linguistics. https://doi.org/10.7820/vli.v01.1.koizumi

Juanggo, W. (2018). Investigating lexical diversity and lexical sophistication of productive vocabulary in the written discourse of Indonesian EFL learners. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics. https://doi.org/10.17509/ijal.v8i1.11462

Kalantari, R., & Gholami, J. (2017). Lexical complexity development from dynamic systems theory perspective: Lexical density, diversity, and sophistication. International Journal of Instruction, 10(4), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.12973/iji.2017.1041a

Koizumi, R., & In’nami, Y. (2012). Withdrawal notice to: Effects of text length on lexical diversity measures: Using short texts with less than 200 tokens. System, 40(4), R1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2012.11.001

Krashen, S., & Terrell, T. (1983). the_Natural_Approach.Pdf. In Stanford Education.

Laufer, B., & Nation, P. (1995). Vocabulary size and use: Lexical richness in L2 written production. Applied Linguistics. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/16.3.307

Lu, X. (2012). The Relationship of Lexical Richness to the Quality of ESL Learners’ Oral Narratives. The Modern Language Journal, 96(2), 190–208. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01232.x

Maftoon, P., & Shakouri, N. (2012). Psycholinguistic Approach to Second Language Acquisition. The International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World.

Malvern, D., Richards, B., Chipere, N., & Durán, P. (2004). Lexical Diversity and Language Development. In Lexical Diversity and Language Development. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230511804

Saville-Troike, M. (2012). Introducing Second Language Acquisition. In Introducing Second Language Acquisition. https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511808838.002

Siegel, J. (2010). Second dialect acquisition. In Second Dialect Acquisition. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511777820

Silverman, S., & Ratner, N. B. (2002). Measuring lexical diversity in children who stutter: Application of vocd. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 27(4), 289–304. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0094-730X(02)00162-6

Stokes, S. F., & Fletcher, P. (2000). Lexical diversity and productivity in Cantonese-speaking children with specific language impairment. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 35(4), 527–541. https://doi.org/10.1080/136828200750001278

Wang, X., & Wang, X. (2014). The relationship between lexical diversity and EFL writing proficiency. Un Iv e r s i t y o f S y d n e y P a p e r s i n T E S OL.

Watkins, R. V., Kelly, D. J., Harbers, H. M., & Hollis, W. (1995). Measuring children’s lexical diversity: Differentiating typical and impaired language learners. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 38(6), 1349–1355. https://doi.org/10.1044/jshr.3806.1349

Yin, R. K. (2012). Case study methods. In Handbook of Complementary Methods in Education Research. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203874769-11

Yu, G. (2010). Lexical diversity in writing and speaking task performances. Applied Linguistics, 31(2), 236–259. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amp024




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18326/rgt.v13i2.%25p

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2020 Famala Eka Sanhadi Rahayu, Aries Utomo, Ririn Setyowati

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

English Education Department, State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, Indonesia 1979-8903 (Print) and 2503-040X : (Online)
In the aim of improving the quality of the Journal since 19th October 2016 this journal officially had made cooperation with ELITE Association Indonesia (The association of Teachers of English Linguistics, Literature & Education). See The MoU Manuscript.

  Click for More....

Creative Commons License
REGISTER JOURNAL : http://journalregister.iainsalatiga.ac.id/ is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License